Chemical Structure / July 22, 2018 / Jaelyn Herrera
Saturated sodium formate solutions (as well as mixtures of other alkali metal formates such as potassium and cesium formate) are used as important drilling and stabilizing aids in gas and oil exploration because of their relatively high density. By mixing the corresponding saturated alkali metal formate solutions any densities between 1,0 and 2,3 gcm3 can be set. The saturated solutions are biocidal and long-term stable against microbial degradation. Diluted, on the other hand, they are fast and completely biodegradable.
The carbothermic reaction is analogous to the Kroll process for the conversion of titanium dioxide to titanium tetrachloride. In the laboratory BF3 reacted with AlCl3 gives BCl3 via halogen exchange. BCl3 is a trigonal planar molecule like the other boron trihalides, and has a bond length of 175pm.
Benzethonium is a synthetic quaternary ammonium salt with surfactant, antiseptic, and broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. Its salt form, benzethonium chloride, is primarily used as a skin disinfectant at concentrations of 0.1-0.2 %, which are safe and effective concentrations for the compound specified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is additionally found in cosmetics and toiletries such as mouthwashes and anti-itch ointments. It is shown to be effective in mediating its antimicrobial action against bacteria, fungi, mold and viruses. There is evidence that benzethonium acts as a spermatocide but may cause vaginal irritation. Benzethonium was identified as a novel cancer-specific compound by cell-based small-molecule screen.
Industrially, benzyl chloride is the precursor to benzyl esters which are used as plasticizers, flavorants, and perfumes. Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, is produced from benzyl cyanide, which is generated by treatment of benzyl chloride with sodium cyanide. Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride.
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