Chemical Structure / July 18, 2018 / Charley Middleton
This is a measure of the three-dimensional fusion of carbon black particles to form aggregates, which may contain a large number of particles. The shape and degree of branching of the aggregates is referred to as structure. Highly structured carbon blacks provide higher viscosity, greater electrical conductivity and easier dispersion for specialty carbon blacks. Measures of aggregate structure may be obtained from shape distributions from EM analysis, oil absorption (OAN) or void volume analysis.
Because of the low-cost and large-scale availability of formic acid by carbonylation of methanol and hydrolysis of the resulting methyl formate, sodium formate is usually prepared by neutralizing formic acid with sodium hydroxide. Sodium formate is also unavoidably formed as a by-product in the final step of the pentaerythritol synthesis and in the crossed Cannizzaro reaction of formaldehyde with the aldol reaction product trimethylol acetaldehyde [3-hydroxy-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propanal].
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