Chemical Structure / July 27, 2018 / Reina Huffman
A degree of π-bonding has been proposed to explain the short B-Cl distance although there is some debate as to its extent. It does not dimerize, although NMR studies of mixtures of boron trihalides shows the presence of mixed halides. The absence of dimerisation contrasts with the tendencies of AlCl3 and GaCl3, which form dimers or polymers with 4 or 6 coordinate metal centres.
Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791, and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, water bodies, rocks, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.
Acrylic acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, paint formulations, and other products. Exposure occurs primarily in the workplace. It is a strong irritant to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans. No information is available on the reproductive, developmental, or carcinogenic effects of acrylic acid in humans. Animal cancer studies have reported both positive and negative results. EPA has not classified acrylic acid for carcinogenicity.
Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is most commonly used as a reagent for converting alcohols to bromides in Appel reactions. Carbon tetrabromide is generally not used as a solvent, whereas its chloro analogue, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), sees frequent use as a solvent.
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