Chemical Structure / July 5, 2018 / Gabriela Rodriquez
Biphenyl is used in organic syntheses, heat transfer fluids, dye carriers, food preservatives, as an intermediate for polychlorinated biphenyls, and as a fungistat in the packaging of citrus fruits. In workers, acute (short-term) exposure to high levels of biphenyl has been observed to cause eye and skin irritation and toxic effects on the liver, kidneys, and central and peripheral nervous systems. Kidney effects have been observed in chronically (long-term) exposed animals. EPA has classified biphenyl as a Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.
The original synthesis of cinnamic acid involves the Perkin reaction, which entails the base-catalysed condensation of acetic anhydride and benzaldehyde. Rainer Ludwig Claisen (1851–1930) described the synthesis of cinnamate esters by the reaction of benzaldehyde and esters. The reaction is known as the Aldol condensation (with accompanying hydrolysis of the anhydride).
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