Chemical Structure / July 16, 2018 / Jaelyn Herrera
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. The simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia, is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. It is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. It is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water. Ammonia is named for the Ammonians, worshipers of the Egyptian god Amun, who used ammonium chloride in their rituals.
Industrially, benzyl chloride is the precursor to benzyl esters which are used as plasticizers, flavorants, and perfumes. Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, is produced from benzyl cyanide, which is generated by treatment of benzyl chloride with sodium cyanide. Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride.
Acrylic acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, paint formulations, and other products. Exposure occurs primarily in the workplace. It is a strong irritant to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans. No information is available on the reproductive, developmental, or carcinogenic effects of acrylic acid in humans. Animal cancer studies have reported both positive and negative results. EPA has not classified acrylic acid for carcinogenicity.
Benzimidazole is also synthesized from o-phenylenediamine and mono or di-basic acid. In this method, the diamine is simply heated with excess acid (Fischer, 1905).This procedure has been recommended as a means of identifying fatty acid α-hydroxy acid as well as phenylacetic acid and diphenylacetic acid are converted into the corresponding benzimidazoles when heated with o-phenylenediamine.
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