Chemical Structure / July 19, 2018 / Reina Huffman
Sodium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO4. It is a white crystalline, hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and in alcohol. It usually encountered as the monohydrate. The compound is noteworthy as the most soluble of the common perchlorate salts. Sodium perchlorate is the precursor to many other perchlorate salts, often taking advantage of their low solubility relative to NaClO4 (209 g100 mL at 25 °C). Perchloric acid is made by treating NaClO4 with HCl. Ammonium and potassium perchlorate, of interest in pyrotechnics, are prepared by double decomposition from a solution of sodium perchlorate and potassium or ammonium chlorides.
Acetonitrile is used mainly as a solvent in the purification of butadiene in refineries. Specifically, acetonitrile is fed into the top of a distillation column filled with hydrocarbons including butadiene, and as the acetonitrile falls down through the column, it absorbs the butadiene which is then sent from the bottom of the tower to a second separating tower. Heat is then employed in the separating tower to separate the butadiene. It is widely used in battery applications because of its relatively high dielectric constant and ability to dissolve electrolytes. For similar reasons it is a popular solvent in cyclic voltammetry.
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