Chemical Structure / July 26, 2018 / Mckenna Osborn
Sodium permanganate cannot be prepared analogously to the route to KMnO4 because the required intermediate manganate salt, Na2MnO4, does not form. Thus less direct routes are used including conversion from KMnO4. Sodium permanganate behaves similarly to potassium permanganate. It dissolves readily in water to give deep purple solutions, evaporation of which gives prismatic purple-black glistening crystals of the monohydrate NaMnO4·H2O. The potassium salt does not form a hydrate. Because of its hygroscopic nature, it is less useful in analytical chemistry than its potassium counterpart.
It is produced on a large scale and is primarily used in the production of polymers, but also sees use in food processing, and as a process fluid in low-temperature heat-exchange applications. In the European Union, it has the E-number E1520 for food applications. For cosmetics and pharmacology, the number is E490.
Benzimidazole is also synthesized from o-phenylenediamine and mono or di-basic acid. In this method, the diamine is simply heated with excess acid (Fischer, 1905).This procedure has been recommended as a means of identifying fatty acid α-hydroxy acid as well as phenylacetic acid and diphenylacetic acid are converted into the corresponding benzimidazoles when heated with o-phenylenediamine.
The carbothermic reaction is analogous to the Kroll process for the conversion of titanium dioxide to titanium tetrachloride. In the laboratory BF3 reacted with AlCl3 gives BCl3 via halogen exchange. BCl3 is a trigonal planar molecule like the other boron trihalides, and has a bond length of 175pm.
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